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INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS CHAPTER NO 19TH CLASS


PHYSICS NOTES 9TH CLASS
Written by BILAL HASAN B.cs , M.cs..
NICE STUDIES ACADEMY HFD
Chapter no 1

DEFINITION OF PHYSICS

The science of the nature. Physics is that branch of science which treats of laws and properties of matter and force acting upon it. The department of natural science (Physics) which treats the causes (Electricity, Head, Light, Magnetism) that modifying the general properties of body; natural philosophy. 
OR 
Physics is an important branch of Science which offers the study of matter and energy along with the interaction between them. 
BRANCHES OF PHYSICS

There are many branches of physics: 
1. Electronics

"It is the branch of Physics which deals with development of electrons, emitting the devices and utilization and controlling of electrons flow in electrical circuit designed for various purpose." 
2 Kinemetics

"It is the branch of Physics which deals with description of motion without reference to any opposing or external force". 
3. Optics

"It is the branch of Physics which deals with light and its properties. 
4. Dynamics

"It is the branch of Physics which deals with causes of motion and their effects" 
5. Calorimetery

"It is the branch of Physics which deals with measurement of heat". 
6. Atomic physics

"It is the branch of Physics which deals with properties and structure of Atom". 
7. Mechanics
"It is the branch of Physics which deals with motion of particles or bodies under the action of given force". 
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CONTRIBUTION OF MUSLIMS SCIENTISTS 
1. IBNE-AL-HAITHAM(965-1039 A.D)
INTRODUCTION 
He was born in Basra a city of Iraq. He was one of the great Muslim Scientist. He was a freat scholar
of physics,mathematics,engineering,astronomy and medicine. 
CONTRIBUTION 
1, He was a first man who discussed in detail about the luminous, non-luminous and transparent
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bodies. 
2, He also gave the structure and working of eyes. 
3, He gave us many laws of reflection and wrote many books about the reflection of light. 
4, He also first time gave the idea that whenever the ray of light is incident on an object some of the incident rays are reflected from the object and enter the eyes consequently the object becomes visible to the eyes which is accepted the scientific view. 
2. AL-BERUNI

INTRODUCTION 
He was born in Berun a small town of Afghanistan.He wrote many books on various subjects like physics,mathematics,culture,astronomy e.t.c 
CONTRIBUTION 
1, He discussed in detail about the movement of sun moon and others planets . 
2, He determined the densities of various metals . 
3, He gave an idea that Earth is floating in the sky like a ships in the water. 
4, He also awarded that he was a first who said that the velocity of light is more than the velocity of sound. 
3.MUHAMMAD IBNE MUSA KHAWRZMI

INTRODUCTION 
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was born in 850A.D at Khwarizm (Kheva), a town south of river Oxus in present Uzbekistan. 
CONTRIBUTION 
1, Al-Khwarizmi was one of the greatest mathematicians ever lived. He was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics. He is also famous as an astronomer and geographer. 
2, He developed in detail trigonometric tables containing the sine functions, which were later extrapolated to tangent functions. 
3, Al-Khwarizmi also developed the calculus of two errors, which led him to the concept of differentiation. He also refined the geometric representation of conic sections. 
4, Al-Khwarizmi wrote a book on astronomical tables. Several of his books were translated into Latin in the early l2th century by Adelard of Bath and Gerard of Cremona. The treatises on Arithmetic, Kitab al-Jam'a wal-Tafreeq bil Hisab al-Hindi, and the one on Algebra, Al-Maqala fi Hisab-al Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, are known only from Latin translations. 
5, He was a first man who introduce the decimal system in mathematics.


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