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SPHERICAL MIRRORS AND LENSES CHAPTER NO 14


PHYSICS NOTES 10TH CLASS
Written by BILAL HASAN B.cs , M.cs..
NICE STUDIES ACADEMY HFD
SPHERICAL MIRRORS AND LENSES
BILAL HASAN:BORROWED FEATHERS SELDOM FIT.


DEFINITIONS
1. Incident Ray

The ray that strikes the surface of the medium is known as Incident Ray. 
2. Reflected Ray

The ray that is sent back into the same medium after reflection is known as reflected ray. 
3. Plane Mirror

A flat smooth reflecting surface, which shows regular reflection is known as plane mirror. 
4. Normal

Perpendicular line on the reflecting surface is known as normal. 
5. Pole

The centre of the spherical mirror is called pole. 
6. Angle of Incidence

The angle subtended by the incident ray to the normal is known as angle of incidence. 
7. Angle of Reflection

The angle subtended by the reflected ray to the normal is known as angle of reflection. 
8. Center of Reflection

The center of the hollow sphere of which the mirror is a part is called center of curvature. 
9. Principle Axis

The straight line passing through center of curvature nad the pole is known as principle axis. 
10. Principle Focus

The ray coming parallel to principal axis after converges to or diverges from a point, which is called principle focus. 
11. Focal Length

The distance between the principle focus and pole of the mirror is called Focal Length. 
12. Radius of Curvature

The distance between the center of curvature and the pole is called radius of curvature. 
13. Real Image 

the image that can be seen on a screen is known as a real image. 
14. Virtual Image

The image that cannot be seen on a screen is known as a virtual image. 
15. Magnification

The ratio between the image height and object height is known as magnification.
The ratio between the image distance to the object distance is known as magnification.


Reflection of Light

Definition 
"The process in which light striking the surface of another medium bounces back in the same medium is known as Reflection of Light." 


Laws of Reflection

1. The angle of reflection, is equal to the angle of incidence: n<i = m<r. 
2. The incident ray, reflected ray and normal, all lie in the same plane. 


Kinds of Reflection

There are two types of Reflection: 
1. Regular Reflection

Definition 
When parallel rays of light strike a surface and most of them are reflected in a same particular direction or same angle, they are said to be regularly reflected and the phenomenon is known as regular reflection. 
Regular reflection occurs when parallel rays of light strike with an ideal smooth plane surface. In regular reflection parallel rays remain parallel after reflection. 
(Diagram) 


2. Irregular Reflection

Definition 
When some rays of light strikes a surface and the reflected rays scatter in different directions, this type of reflection is called irregular reflection. 
It occurs when parallel rays strike with an irregular rough surface. In this case rays does not remain parallel after reflection and they scattered. 
(Diagram) 

Advantages of Irregular Reflection 
Due to this reflection, sunlight reaches us before sunrise and persists for some time even after the sunset.
Due to this reflection we get sufficient light in our rooms and other places where sunlight do not reach directly.
Due to this reflection sunlight reaches to each of the leaves of a tree and photosynthesis takes place on large scale.
Due to this reflection, we can see luminous objects.

Image Formed by a Plane Mirror

Consider a mirror MM', AP is an object. Consider that a point P lies on the tip of the object. From P as ray travels and strikes mirror and reflect back to the eye, they appear to come back. From Point P' as shown in the figure. Hence P' is the image of P. Similarly, infinite points lying an object produces infinite images of points and complete image of an object is formed. 

Characteristics of Image Formed by a Plane Mirror 
Image is same in size as that of the object.
The distance of object and image are equal from the mirror.
The image formed is virtual and inverted.


Spherical Mirrors


Definition 
"A spherical mirror is a section of a of a hollow sphere." 
Types of Spherical Mirrors

There are two types of spherical mirror: 
Concave Mirror (Converging Mirror)
Convex Mirror (Diverging Mirror)


1. Concave Mirror

Definition 
"The spherical mirror in which inner side of the surface is polished for reflection is called a concave mirror." 

Properties 
The bulging side is polished.
Reflection occurs from its hollow side.
They converge the parallel rays at a point.
They can form real and imaginary, both types of images.


2. Convex Mirror

Definition 
"The spherical mirror in which inner side of the surface is polished for reflection is called concave mirror." 

Properties 
The bulging side is polished.
Reflection occurs from its hollow side.
They converge the parallel rays at a point.
They can form real and imaginary, both type of images.

BILAL HASAN:BORROWED FEATHERS SELDOM FIT.



Formation of Image by Concave Mirrors

There are six cases to form an image by concave mirror. 
1. Object at Infinity

(Diagram) 
If the object is placed at infinity from the mirror, the rays coming from the object are parallel to principal axis. After reflection, they meet at principal focus and image is formed at the focus. 

Details of Image 
Formed at F.
Extremely Small
Real
Inverted


2. Object Beyond C

(Diagram) 
If the object is placed beyond C, rays coming from the object are not parallel. They meet after reflection between the focus and center of curvature. Therefore, image is formed between the focus and center of curvature. 

Details of Image 
Formed between F and C.
Small in size.
Real
Inverted


3. Object at Center of Curvature 'C'

When object is placed at the centre of curvature, the image formed at the same place. 
(Diagram) 

Details of Image 
Formed at C
Equal in size
Real
Inverted



4. Object Between F and C

(Diagram) 
When the object is placed between the focus and Centre of curvature, the image is formed beyond the centre of curvature.

Details of Image 
Formed beyond C.
Large in size.
Real
Inverted


5. Object at F

(Diagram) 
When object is placed at focus the reflected rays become parallel to each other. The two parallel lines meet at infinity. Therefore, we say the image is formed at infinity. 

Details of Image 
Formed at Infinity.
Extremely Large
Real
Inverted


6. Object between P and F

(Diagram) 
For locating object between pole and focus the rays reflected do not meet because they diverge. But they meet backward. So, the image is formed backward or behind the mirror. 

Details of Image 
Formed behind the mirror.
Large in size
Virtual
Erect

Uses of Spherical Mirror

Spherical mirrors are used in several places. Some of them are given below: 
Shaving: A concave mirror is used to enlarge the image.
Microscope: A convex mirror is used for magnification in a microscope.
Telescope: The convex mirror is used.
In Searchlights and Headlights: Concave mirror is used to form the rays in searchlights and headlights, used for different purposes.
For Rear View: The convex mirror is used in automobiles.
In Medical Examination (Opthalmoscope): Doctors use concave mirror for the examination of ear, nose, throat and eyes of patients.
1. Emergent Ray

The ray after passing the second medium comes again in the first medium. It is called emergent ray. 
2. Emergence Angle

The angle formed by the emergent ray and normal is called emergence angle denoted by <e. 
3. Optical Center

The middle point of the lens is called optical center. The ray passing through this point does not bend. 
4. Accommodation

The ability of the eye to change the focal length of its lens so as to form a clear image of an object on its retina is called is power of accommodation. 
5. Persistence of Vision

When an object is seen by an eye, its image forms on retina. If the object is removed, the impression of image persists in the eye for about 1/10 second. This interval is called Persistence of Vision. 
6. Power of Lens

The power of the lens is the reciprocal of the focal length measured in meter. Its unit is Dioptre. 


Refraction of Light

Definition 
"The change in the direction and velocity of light as it enters from one medium to another is known as Refraction of Light." 

Laws of Refraction
 
The incident ray, refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.
The ratio of sine of angle of incidence (i) to the sine of angle of refraction (r) is constant for all rays of light from one medium to another. This constant is known as Refractive Index (u). This ratio is also equal to the ratio of the speeds of light in one medium to another.

Refractive Index = sin<i/sin<r = Speed of light in first medium/Speed of light in second medium 


Refractive Index

The ratio between the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is known as Refractive Index. 

Refractive Index = sin <i/sin<r 


Snell's Law

The refractive index between two particular mediums is equal to the ratio of speed of light in first medium and speed of light in second medium equal to the ratio between sin <i and sin <r. 

Refractive Index = sin<i/sin<r = Speed of light in first medium/Speed of light in second medium 


Prism

Definition 
"Prism is a transparent piece of glass. It has three rectangular sides and two triangular sides. 

Refraction Through a Prism 
(Diagram) 
where, 
<i = angle of incidence
<r = angle of refraction
<e = angle of emergence
<D = angle of deviation


Total Internal Reflection

(Diagram) 
If the value of angle of incidence is increased so much so that it becomes greater than tht of the critical angle then no more refraction occurs but on the other hand refracted ray again comes back in the denser medium. Actually at that time, the surface of denser medium acts as a plane mirror and the incident ray bends in the same medium. This phenomenon is called Total Internal Reflection. It is used in Periscope, Optical Fibers and other instruments. 

Total Reflecting Prism 
Total internal reflection is used in prism. In prism the angle between two opposite sides is 90 and other two angles are 45 each. If we arrange a ray so that it falls perpendicular to the AB side then it will refract without bending and strike the side AC with angle 45. Then it totally reflects to the side BC. 

Conditions for Total Internal Reflection 
The ray of light should travel from denser to rarer medium.
The angle of incidence should be greater than the critical angle.
Lenses

Definition 
A transparent and smooth glass or any refracting medium surrounded by two spherical surfaces is known as lens. 
Types of Lenses


BILAL HASAN:BORROWED FEATHERS SELDOM FIT.




There are two types of lenses: 


1. Convex Lens

If the glass is thick at the center and thin at the edges then it is known as convex lens. It is a converging lens. 
(Diagram) 
It has three types: 
Double Convex Lens
Plano Convex Lens
Concavo Convex Lens
2. Concave Lens

If the lens is thinner in the center and thicker at the edges then it is known as a concave lens. It is a diverging lens. 
(Diagram) 
It has three types: 
Double Concave Lens
Plano Concavo Lens
Convex Concave Lens


Formation of Image by Convex Lens

1. Object at Infinity

When object is placed at infinite distance from convex lens the rays coming from the object are parallel to each other and they meet after refraction at the focus. 

Details of Image 
Formed at Focus
Real
Inverted
At opposite side
Highly diminished


2. Object Beyond 2F

When object is placed at some distance from 2F then image is formed between the focus and center of curvature (2F). 

Details of Image 
Between F and 2F
Opposite side of Lens
Real
Inverted
Small in size


3. Object at 2F

When object placed at center of curvature, image is formed at center of curvature at the opposite side. 

Details of Image 
Real
Inverted
At 2F
Same in size
At the opposite side of the Lens


4. Object between F and 2F

When object is placed between the focus and center of curvature then the image is formed on opposite side beyond the center of curvature. 

Details of Image 
Real
Inverted
Large in size
Opposite side of lens
Beyond 2F


5. Object at F

When object is placed at focus the refracted rays are parallel to each other and meet at infinity. 

Details of Image 
Real
Inverted
Extremely Large
Opposite side of Lens
At infinity


6. Object between F and O

When object is placed between the lens and principal focus, then the refracted rays does not meet at opposite side but image is formed at the same side where the object is placed. 

Details of Image 
Virtual
Erect
Large
Same side of lens
Beyond the object


Optical Instruments

1. THE EYE 

(Diagram) 
Functions of the Parts of Eye

1. Sclera Scelortic 
It is a layer enclosed in cavity filled with a fluid called Vitrous Humour. It is the outer coating of eye. 

2. Choroid 
It is a dark membranous coating. This is coated with black pigments. It keeps the inner parts of the eye ball light proof. 

3. Retina 
It is semi-transparent membranes of nerve fibers forming the innermost coating of the eye and sensitive to light. It is a screen on which image is formed. 

4. Cornea 
It allows light into the eyes. It is transparent and bulging in shape. 

5. Iris 
It is like diaphragm of a camera. It has a tiny opening at its center called pupil, which regulates the quantity of light entering the eye. 

6. Crystalline Lens 
This is a lens that automatically contracts and expands, alters the focal length of eye lens. 

7. Ciliary Body 
It holds crystalline lens in the proper position. 

8. Aqueous Humour and Vitrous Humour 
The place between cornea and the lens is filled by a transparent liquid called Aqueous Humour. The large chamber of the eye between the lens and the back of eye is filled with a jelly like substance called Vitreous Humour. These liquids serve mainly to keep the spherical shape of the eye. 

Main Defects of Eye

1. Short Sightedness (Myopia)

If a person can see object placed near, but cannot see distant object, this defect is known as short sightedness. 

Causes 
This defect appears due to increase in thickness of eyeball. The focal length decreases making the image to form before retina. 
(Diagram) 

Removal of Defect 
It is removed by using a concave lens of suitable focal length. 
(Diagram) 


2. Long Sightedness (Hypermetropia)

If a person can see distant objects, but not near objects, this defect is called long sightedness. 

Causes 
This defect appears due to decrease in thickness of ball. The focal length increases so that the image is formed beyond the retina. 
(Diagram) 

Removal of Defect 
It is removed by sing a convex lens of suitable focal length. 
(Diagram) 


3. Astigmatism

It is the defect in which the clear image of an object does not form on the retina. 

Causes 
This defect appears due to non-sphericity of the cornea. 

Removal 
This defect can be removed by using lenses of different focal length. 


4. Presbyopia

The accommodation power of eye loses by which a person suffers a long sightedness. This defect is called Presbyopia or Lack of Accommodation. 

Causes 
This defect appears due to loss of accommodation power of the lens of the eye. 

Removal 
This defect can be removed by using convex lens. 


2. CAMERA

Definition 
A camera is an optical device for obtaining still photographs or for exposing cinematic films. 

Construction 
It consists of a light proof box with a lens at one end and a photographic plate or film at other end and a shutter to control the light rays. 

Working 
To make an exposure, the shutter is opened and an image is formed by lens on the photographic plate or film, small in size. Photographic plate or film saves this image. In this way an image is obtained. 


3. COMPOUND MICROSCOPE

Construction 
It consist of two convex lenses at the end of two tubes. One tube can slide into other so that the distance between them can be change. The lens near the object is the small convex lens of short focal length is called objective. The lens near the eye is the larger convex of longer focal length is called eyepiece. 
(Diagram) 

Working 
The object is placed between F and @F and its real, inverted and magnified image A'B' is formed. The eyepiece is brought close to it so that it comes within its focal length. The first image A'B' acts as an object and a virtual, erect and magnified final image A"B" is formed. The magnification of a microscope can be varied by using different objectives. 


4. ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE


It is used to see heavenly bodies. 

Construction 
It consists of two convex lenses at the end of the two metallic tubes. One tube can slide into other so that the distance between can be changed. The lens near the object is a convex lens of longer focal length called the objective, while the lens near the eye is a small convex lens of shorter focal length called the eyepiece. 
(Diagram) 

Working 
The rays from distant object entering the objective and form a real, inverted and diminished image A'B' near the principal focus. The eyepiece is adjusted so that the image formed by the objective comes within its focal length. Thus the eyepiece acts as a magnifying glass and a virtual, erect and magnified image A"B" is formed by the first image. 


Difference between Real Image and Virtual Image

Real Image 
1. Real image is formed when rays after reflection actually meet at a point. 
2. Real image is inverted and can be seen on a screen. 
3. It has a physical existence. 

Virtual Image 
1. Virtual image is formed when rays do not actually meet but appear to diverge from a point. 
2. Virtual image is erect and cannot be seen on a screen. 
3. It does not have a physical existence.






BILAL HASAN:BORROWED FEATHERS SELDOM FIT.

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